Professor Roy F. Baumeister
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
What is The Self?
The self has been one of the most widely studied phenomena in psychology, yet there is no consensus about what it is, and indeed some scholars have boldly proposed that there is no such thing. This talk argues the reality of the self as a social adaptation at the interface between the physical body and the social system. It reviews evidence that human groups function best on the basis of differentiated identities. The conclusion is that the self-emerged not from the inner requirements of the brain or psyche but rather from the requirements of organized groups.
Roy F. Baumeister is currently professor of psychology at the University of Queensland as well as the Eppes Eminent Scholar and Professor of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his Ph.D. in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 and did a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at the University of California at Berkeley. He spent over two decades at Case Western Reserve University. He has also worked at the University of Texas, the University of Virginia, the Max-Planck-Institute, the VU Free University of Amsterdam, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Russell Sage Foundation, the University of Bamberg (Germany), and Stanford’s Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. Baumeister’s research spans multiple topics, including self and identity, self-regulation, interpersonal rejection and the need to belong, sexuality and gender, aggression, self-esteem, meaning, and self-presentation. He has received research grants from the National Institutes of Health and from the Templeton Foundation. He has over 600 publications, and his 33 books include Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty, The Cultural Animal, Meanings of Life, and the New York Times bestseller Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength. The Institute for Scientific Information lists him among the handful of most cited (most influential) psychologists in the world. He has received several major awards, including the William James Fellow award (their highest honor) from the Association for Psychological Science, and the Jack Block Award from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
Professor Stuart J.H. Biddle
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
Do We Need Motivation to Sit Less?
Application of theories and principles of motivation to physical activity have become widespread. However, this is usually in reference to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) that requires some physical and psychological effort. ‘Movement’ can best be conceptualised as a continuum from sleep and sedentary (sitting) behaviour, to light physical activity, and onto MVPA. With different behaviours depicted on this continuum, it is likely that each behaviour will have different determinants. Given the rapid increase in interest in reducing the amount of time we spend sitting, it is necessary to consider how best to enact such behaviour change. In this presentation, I will outline some common intervention methods used to reduce sitting, including promising behaviour change techniques, and ask the fundamental question about whether we really need motivation to sit less? Or can we create less sedentary behaviour through less conscious environmental interventions? Consideration must also be given to a dual approach where the two are combined. A key issue to consider is habit in the context of conscious motivation. Are you sitting comfortably? Then I will begin...
Stuart Biddle is Professor of Active Living & Public Health in the Institute of Sport, Exercise & Active Living, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. His research adopts a multidisciplinary approach to the study of physical activity and sedentary behaviours with a particular interest in behaviour change and mental well-being. Stuart has published about 70 book chapters and more than 250 research papers, including over 60 on sedentary behaviour. In addition, he has authored and edited several books, including ‘Psychology of physical activity’, now in its 3rd edition. He is a Past President of both the International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) and European Federation for the Psychology of Sport & Physical Activity (FEPSAC), and has contributed to governmental expert groups on sedentary behaviour and physical activity. Stuart has been a consultant to Fitness First, Unilever, and Weight Watchers. He walks as much as possible, preferably on a golf course, has a long history in muscle strengthening exercise, and uses a standing desk at work most of the time.
Professor Edward L. Deci
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
Autonomy as a Moderator of Psychological Phenomena
Edward L. Deci, William S. Ryan, Thuy-vy Nguyen, and Richard M. Ryan
Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2017) differentiates the concept of motivation into autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. Autonomous motivation involves acting with a sense of willingness, volition, and choice, and leads to more openness, effectiveness, and wellness, whereas controlled motivation involves acting with a sense of pressure, tension, and obligation, and leads to more defensive, manipulative, and algorithmic performing. In this presentation, I will discuss studies that have shown that when people are more controlled in their motivation they evidence various standard psychological phenomena (e.g., terror management phenomena; unrelated implicit and explicit states; and high-standards perfectionistic outcomes), but when they are more autonomous (or mindful) they are less likely to show those phenomena. Similarly, people high in controlled motivation resist integrating negative life events and display ego-depletion, but people high in autonomous motivation do not.
Edward L. Deci holds an M.S. and Ph.D. in psychology from Carnegie-Mellon University and was an interdisciplinary post-doctoral fellow at Stanford University. For more than 45 years he has been engaged in a program of research on human motivation, much of it in collaboration with Richard M. Ryan. Together Deci and Ryan developed Self-Determination Theory, which has guided their research leading to articles in the top journals in psychology, including Psychological Bulletin, American Psychologist, and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Deci has published eleven books, including Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness (Ryan & Deci, 2017). A grantee of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Institute of Education Sciences, and the Gates Foundation, he has lectured at more than 100 universities and has consulted to organizations in 24 countries.
Professor John Hattie
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
The Self-Strategies That We Bring to Learning
The presentation surveys over 400 learning strategies that students bring to learning, uses a synthesis of meta-analyses specifically on these strategies, and presents a model that highlights the strategies with the greatest impact. The presentation outlines the major moderators as to the effectiveness of the strategies, describes teaching methods that optimise the strategies, and suggests measurement methods to help teachers and students know about how students learn best.
John Hattie research interests are measurement models and their applications to educational problems, and models of teaching, self, and learning. His focus in Visible Learning relates to parenting, the role of students as visible learners, and the development of the teaching profession.
Professor Michael A. Hogg
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
Identity Uncertainty’s Dark Side: Extremist Groups and Autocratic Leaders
Change, particularly if it is relentless, can make people feel uncertain about themselves, their identity and the world they live in. According to uncertainty-identity theory (Hogg, 2007, 2014), this form of uncertainty, identity uncertainty, can be very effectively resolved by identifying with social groups, and internalizing their normative attributes to govern one’s own behavior. However, this process can come with a price – it can drive people to identify with extremist groups, endorse autocratic leaders, and become zealous followers. To bring this research program to life I start by describing how uncertainty motivates people to identify with clearly defined groups, and then extend this idea to show how it can explain the appeal of extremist groups, autocratic leadership and zealous behavior. Along the way I describe some of the studies supporting these ideas. For example, one study showed that self-uncertainty caused moderate students to be more prepared to identify with and endorse the actions of extremist student action groups (Hogg, Meehan & Farquharson, 2010). Another showed that identity uncertainty was associated with greater support for autocratic leadership among business employees who generally preferred democratic leadership (Rast, Hogg & Giessner, 2013). Yet another showed that members of fraternities and sororities would behave most zealously if they felt uncertain about their membership status and that extreme intergroup behavior would secure acceptance (Goldman & Hogg, 2016). The implications of this research for understanding how to combat extremism and build positive outcomes are discussed.
Michael Hogg (PhD, Bristol) is Professor and Chair of the Social Psychology Program at Claremont Graduate University, in Los Angeles, an Honorary Professor at the University of Kent, and a former President of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. He is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, the Society of Experimental Social Psychology, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, and the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. Michael Hogg’s research on group processes, intergroup relations and self-conception is closely associated with the development of social identity theory. He has 350 scientific publications and was the 2010 recipient of the Carol and Ed Diener Mid-Career Award in Social Psychology from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. He is foundation Editor-in-Chief with Dominic Abrams of the journal Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, an associate editor of The Leadership Quarterly, and a former associate editor of the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Current research foci include influence and leadership, identity uncertainty and extremism, and exclusion and marginalization.
Professor Reinhard Pekrun
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
Achievement Emotions: The Role of Self-Concept and Cognitive Appraisals
Emotions are ubiquitous in achievement settings. A broad range of emotions occur in these settings, such as enjoyment, hope, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, or boredom. During the past fifteen years, there has been growing recognition that these emotions are central to human learning, performance, identity development, and health. As such, it is important to consider their origins and development. In this presentation, I will use Pekrun’s (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions as a conceptual framework to examine the role of self-beliefs and self-appraisals in the genesis of these emotions. The control-value theory posits that appraisals of competence and control (perceived control) and value appraisals (perceived value) are of critical importance for achievement emotions. It is proposed that achievement emotions are aroused when an individual feels in control over, or out of control of, achievement activities and outcomes that are subjectively important. The theory also proposes that perceived control and value interact in generating achievement emotions. For example, perceived lack of control and high perceived importance of achievement are thought to promote students’ fear of failure, with a combination of these two appraisals being especially detrimental. I will discuss the existing evidence supporting these propositions. This includes experimental studies that manipulated control and value as well as non-experimental studies on the relation between appraisals and achievement emotions in field settings. In closing, implications for practice and treatment interventions will be outlined, and directions for future research will be discussed.
Reinhard Pekrun is Professor for Personality and Educational Psychology at the University of Munich. His research areas include achievement emotion and motivation, personality development, and educational assessment. He pioneered research on emotions in education and originated the Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions. Pekrun is a highly-cited researcher who has authored more than 250 articles, chapters, and books, including numerous publications in leading journals such as Psychological Science, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Child Development, and Journal of Educational Psychology. Pekrun is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, of the International Academy of Education, and of the American Educational Research Association. He served as President of the Stress and Anxiety Research Society, Dean of the Faculty for Psychology and Education at the University of Regensburg, and Vice-President for Research at the University of Munich. In an advisory capacity, Pekrun is active in policy development and implementation in education.
Professor Katariina Salmela-Aro
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
Towards a new science of academic engagement
This presentation focuses on a new science of academic engagement addressing the question,“Is there a dark side to academic engagement and a bright side to disengagement?” According to the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) ratings, Finnish students are among the best performers worldwide, consistently achieving top scores in mathematics, science, and reading.
However, recent findings show that Finnish adolescents may not be emotionally engaged in school. PISA survey revealed that 15-year-old Finnish students ranked 60th out of 65 countries in their liking of school (OECD, 2013). Many Finnish secondary school students reported school burnout, feelings of inadequacy, exhaustion at school, and cynicism about the values of school.
In this presentation, I 1) present recent findings from several longitudinal and experience sampling studies that have sought to identify different trajectories and profiles of emotional engagement and school burnout; 2) examine the longitudinal associations of emotional engagement and school burnout with academic and psychological outcomes; 3) examine the role of social context for academic engagement, such as parents autonomy support, and present some ideas how to increase engagement, such as optimal learning moments App development.
Katariina Salmela-Aro is a Professor of Psychology, Center for Learning and Teaching, University of Jyväskylä, and Research Director, Cicero Learning, University of Helsinki. She is also Visiting Professor in the Institute of Education, University College London, School of Education, Michigan State University and she was a visiting scholar School of Education, University of California Irvine. She was a post-doc in the Max-Planck Institute in Berlin. She is the President of the European Association for Developmental Psychology, and previous Secretary General (first female) International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development (ISSBD). She is director of several ongoing longitudinal studies among young people: FinEdu, PIRE, LEAD, Mind-the-Gap.
Her key themes are school engagement, burnout, optimal leaning moments, life-span model of motivation and related interventions. She is the Founding-member Pathways International Interdisciplinary Post-doctoral fellowship program, Member of Academy of Finland Strategic Funding Council. She is Consulting Editor Developmental Psychology (APA), and Associate Editor in the European Psychologist journal. She has published over 250 papers and chapters and received several national/international, 10 large-scale grants from Academy of Finland as well a grant from the National Science Foundation research grant, and EU Coordinator Marie Curie post-doc grant.
Professor Michael L. Wehmeyer
+ SELF 2017 PRESENTATION
Strengths-Based Approaches to Disability: Self-Determination and Autonomy-Supportive Interventions to Empower People with Disabilities
This session will examine the role of positive psychology in the emergence of strengths-based approaches to understanding and conceptualizing disability and the implications for how societies support people with disabilities to live full, rich lives. In particular, the important role of self-determination in moving away from pathology-based models will be discussed, including an overview of autonomy- and competence-supportive interventions that have been developed to promote causal agency and enhance self-determination. The session will also examine a model of the development of self-determination that has emerged from Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and autonomous motivation and incorporates theories of action-control beliefs and causal agency.
Michael L. Wehmeyer, Ph.D. is the Ross and Marianna Beach Distinguished Professor of Special Education and Director and Senior Scientist, Beach Center on Disability at the University of Kansas. His research and scholarly work has focused issues pertaining to self-determination and the application of positive psychology and strengths-based approaches to conceptualizing disability, measuring supports and support needs, and designing and evaluating the impact of autonomy-supportive interventions. He is editor of The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology and Disability (2013, Oxford University Press) and numerous other texts. Dr. Wehmeyer is Past-President of the Board of Directors for and a Fellow of the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD); a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Division (Div. 33); and Vice-President for the Americas and a Fellow of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IASSIDD). He has been recognized for his research and service with awards from numerous associations and organizations, including, recently, the Council for Exceptional Children’s Special Education Research Award for 2016 in recognition of research advancing the education of children and youth with exceptionalities, the Distinguished Researcher Award for lifetime contributions to research in intellectual disability by The Arc of the United States, and the American Psychological Association Committee on Disability Issues in Psychology 2015 Distinguished Contributions to the Advancement of Disability Issues in Psychology Award.